Research & White Papers

Closed-Loop Control Neural Activity Technology Roadmap White Paper

IEEE Brain announces publication of Future Neural Therapeutics, a technology roadmap white paper that identifies key challenges and advances required to successfully develop next generation closed-loop neurotechnologies. As interest in the design and adoption of closed-loop neurotechnologies to treat movement disorders and neurological diseases steadily increases, next generation closed-loop devices that decode and encode neural activity from multiple nervous system sites likely will emerge within the next 10-20 years. The intent of this white paper is to serve as a resource for the neuroscience and neuroengineering community as these technologies move closer to development.

Version 1 of the white paper, published November 2019, was shared with the broader neuroscience community for input on key objectives; Version 2 incorporates this feedback with revised content. Continued input from neuroscientists, engineers, neuroethicists, and clinicians is requested to ensure that all stakeholders have a voice in articulating the technology development process. Please send comments and questions to

The Future Neural Therapeutics White Paper can be accessed here:

Version 2 (PDF, 952 KB)

Version 1 (PDF, 563 KB)