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Addressing the Ethical, Legal, Social, and Cultural Implications of Neurotechnology

As part of our effort to support the neuroengineering community, the IEEE Brain Neuroethics Subcommittee is developing a neuroethical framework for evaluating the ethical, legal, social, and cultural issues that may arise with the deployment of such neurotechnologies.

Neuroethics FrameworkThe goals of this framework are to:

  1. Describe the landscape of what we define as neurotechnologies
  2. Identify the ethical, legal, social, and cultural implications (ELSCI) that should be broadly considered during the research, development, clinical application, evaluation, adoption, and usage of neurotechnologies. While this framework is intended to provide particularly useful guidance for neurotechnology researchers and developers, the broad reach of ELSCI demands that all neurotech stakeholders—including device regulators, research ethics committees, scientific funding officers, clinicians, and end users—remain aware of these issues and engaged in related professional and public discourse.

IEEE Brain is in the process of developing documentation that supports this framework by providing examples of existing neurotechnologies and exploring the ethical, legal, social, and cultural issues (ELSCI) generated by a particular neurotechnology when used in specific contexts (medical, wellness, work and employment, legal, education, entertainment, marketing, sports and competition). Please see the General Introduction (link below) for more information on the overall effort. Links to information on each of the applications are also provided here.

The intent is for the framework documents to evolve as new developments, uses, and issues arise, and therefore we would appreciate receiving your feedback on current documentation. Please note that this site will also evolve as more detailed documentation is published in each of the applications over time. At this time, only the Medical Application is available for public review. Please use this FORM to provide your feedback to the IEEE Brain Neuroethics Committee.

If you are interested in volunteering in one of these Working Groups to help advance the work, please complete this FORM and we will contact you.


Technologies for diagnostics or treatment of infirmity and disease including direct-to-consumer

Rebecca Monteleone

Alberto Antonietti
Michael Young
Denis Lavaree
Jennifer French
Joanne Nash
Zach McKinney
Joana Soldado
Noeline Prins

Jacob Robinson
Joanne Nash
Seungmin Nam
Lucy Tournas
Tom Stieglitz
Marcus Kaiser
Vedat Ozciftci


Technologies for active pursuit of a healthy and fulfilling life; improving physical, mental, and social well-being

Katherine Bassil

Jeremy Greenberg
Adriana Pliego
Tamami Fukushi

Peter B. Reiner
Phoebe Gilbert
Alex Hsain
John David Chibuk
Jacqueline Csonka-Peeren
Jie Yin


Technologies for use in civil and criminal adjudication, as well as in the correctional context, including to detect, modify and/or surveil brain states

Jack Judy
Nicole Martinez

Ashley Williams
Anita Jwa
Matias Aranguiz
Jordi Domingo
Gary Marchant
Jennifer Chandler
Ricardo Abuchaim
Masatoshi Kokomo

Military / National Security

Technologies to augment or improve the ability to fight or defend through soldier enhancement, intelligence, and/or debilitate the enemy

Seth Elkin Frankston
Diane DiEuliis

Tracy Laabs
Kimberly Thacker
Matias Aranguiz
Paul Beach
Carl Wrede
Gabriella Smith
Rachel Wurzman
Joshua Mueller
Inga Ulnicane
Courtnie Jean Paschall

Work & Employment

Technologies to monitor or modify brain in the workplace; efficiency improvements, evaluation and monitoring

Avinash Kumar Singh
Yunus Telliel

Adrian Carter
Lex Telischak
Rachel Wurzman
Max Wilson
Nikhil Gowda
Kelly Neville
Jack Judy


Technologies to improve and/or facilitate learning; assist in remedial learning strategies; cognitive enhancement

John Shook
Genevieve Smith Nunes

Bruce Hecht
Josep Maria Balaguer
Deepak Mewada
Manuel Guerrero
Ankita Moss
Uri Hasson

Sports & Competitions

Sports and Competition Technologies impacting success in sports or competition, including before, during or after competition

Robert Martone
Javier Lopez Frias

Armani Porter

Brett Wingeier


Technologies use for entertainment, including virtual/augmented reality and brain-controlled video games

Jeremey Greenberg
Garrett Flynn
Bruce Hecht
Jordi Domingo
Ben Neumeyer
Tamami Fukushi


Technologies used to inform decision making, including data used to profile and influence consumers

Florian Richter

Adolfo Ramirez
Annabel Gillard
Mikihiro Kasahara

Glossary / Review Committee

Oversight of documentation for consistent use of key terms and creation of full glossary.

Alberto Antonietti
Adam Steiner

Arleen Salles
Mark Fedyk
Denis Larrivee

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